Innovation for Life.

Theoretical Physics & Chemistry

Essential to understanding:

  • viability / potential profitability of new energy technologies
  • climate science
  • role of green house gases, particles
  • polluted water vapor’s GH potential
  • health, environmental, and climate impacts
  • future regulatory environments

New research & technology advances in physics, energy and power production, climate science, and medical science are radically reshaping humankind’s understanding of the above fields, and the world we live in.  Many of these developments were either advanced by Paragon, or research associates currently working with Paragon. 

This provides Paragon with a unprecedented technical ability to evaluate the future commercial viability of new energy and medical technologies – for itself, partners, and clients. 

And while the ground breaking research and technology developments referred to above were not expected, they unequivocally prove that the physical world we thought we understood well in 2007 actually operates per a different set of rules.

These breakthroughs have already begun to fundamentally change the course of human development, and our near-term economic and social futures as well – whether related to:

  • new inexpensive power technologies for homes, industry, and transportation
  • which carbon fuels and soot by-products are actually driving climate change
  • which fuels, chemicals, and foods are most problematic from a health and pollution perspective
  • the predicted growth and decline of various economic & industry sectors as a result
  • which companies and countries will advance and/or lead as a result

And they are already affecting investment, technology development, and infrastructure planning.  In the near future they will also affect government regulation of existing technology used in most industry today, as well as human development everywhere. 

These discoveries also affect many organization’s future investment decisions related to energy, climate, or medicine.  However, most corporations, NGOs, governments, and countries are not yet aware of these developments.  But one thing is clear – those operating in affected industries need to get informed, or risk losing their position or competitive advantage.

A clear grasp of how these developments radically alter our understanding of Nature is essential to understanding the technical, economic, and socio-political future of those domains.  Without that knowledge it’s impossible to properly or accurately evaluate the potential economic impact of many new technologies within world markets; or their short & long term effects on human health, the environment, and climate; or the socio-political and regulatory / taxation impacts to be expected.  Assessments of all of the above are required to ensure optimization of long term investment dollars, growth strategies, and human development.

Paragon has also applied theoretical physics and chemistry to develop new climate theory that is fundamentally changing climate science, and the current understanding of the role of soot on atmospheric and surface warming, and that of soot’s effects on water vapor’s role as a green house gas.  Collectively, these new insights show that climate change appears to be primarily driven by soot, and not as much by CO2, as previously believed.

Going another step further, Paragon has also applied its climate research with its physics research to better understand and analyze the commercial feasibility of numerous new power generation systems in development today.

The following provides a brief background on some of Paragon’s research work.

Physics Research

Paragon’s President and Director of Research is Sam Bock.  While at Middlebury College he began extensive study and research of theoretical physics and chemistry, and received a degree in Economics and Environmental Science in 1982. 

His thesis was an economic / scientific analysis & forecast of North America’s future energy needs and technology use, focusing on fossil fuels, nuclear power and alternative solar and wind sources.  While considered controversial at the time, he accurately forecast the decline of the American nuclear power industry due to the inability of affected utilities to recover their investments over a nuclear plant’s planned lifetime.  He predicted that the excess production of ionizing radiation produced in larger plants operating at full capacity, and from that, the associated metal fatigue induced in reactor cores and heat exchangers would result in unanticipated plant shutdowns and/or forced slowdowns, shorter lifetimes, reduced operating efficiencies, and financial losses.  

More importantly, in 1981, when first researching theoretical physics & nuclear chemistry, Bock immediately disagreed with the concepts of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and the probabilistic atomic “electron cloud” models described by accepted Quantum Mechanics theory.  Instead, he proposed that electrons orbit the atomic nucleus in distinct predictable pathways, in essentially 2-dimensional planes, creating super electric currents and powerful magnetic fields that define atomic electron structure, better explain atomic bonding, and explain noble gas structure. 

Bock also disagreed with the concept of a fixed gravitational constant, and proposed that any mass’s surface gravitational force is dependent on that mass’s net density, and that gravity is actually the Strong Force holding stable multi-proton atomic nucleuses together, and that this same force is responsible for the disintegration of various unstable atomic structures (currently attributed to the “Weak Force”).  Both theories were initially dismissed by his professors, but intrigued many more open-minded students. 

In 2011, a similar 2-dimensional electron orbital model was established by new research to be vastly superior to the “electron cloud” model postulated by current quantum theory.  The theory is a principle tenet of the new power generation systems Paragon is currently developing with partners. 

Bock continues to refine the language, mathematics, and testable predictions he believes will ultimately be necessary to demonstrate the unification of the four major forces: Gravity, the Strong Force, the Weak Force, and Electromagnetism.

Climate Research

A life long environmentalist dedicated to action on Climate Change, Bock first began intensive research to try to help solve the climate problem as North American and world temperatures began to soar in the 1990’s.  Later, to his surprise, when doing background research to corroborate currently-accepted climate science theory, he discovered that the world has not warmed as predicted by standard GHG theory, and that the historical temperature and weather data actually strongly indicate that carbon-based soots have been driving the climate change witnessed to date. 

Bock became the first climate researcher to refute the CO2 / GHG theory and propose and show that almost all the climate warming of the industrial era has been caused by carbon soots found in air pollution, and not by an accumulation of CO2 and other anthropogenic GHGs.  Carbon soots fall out of the atmosphere, and can be eliminated, whereas CO2 accumulates.  In other words, if soot is driving the problem, most climate change can be quickly reversed.

Bock’s research thesis began to develop In May 1998 when he noticed that the City of Montreal’s air pollution was thickest during the week, lowest on Sundays, and that the intensity of the pollution correlated with the intensity of scattered red light at sunset.  Therefore, the daily fluctuations in red-light-scattering are independent of the relatively fixed levels of CO2 and GHG content in the atmosphere.  This made Bock wonder whether that particulate pollution might also be absorbing light and reflecting infra-red light (heat), thereby driving atmospheric temperatures up or down independently of any Green House Gas effect. 

Subsequent research analysis indicates this is indeed the case.  In 2005, upon reviewing global temperature maps showing regional temperature changes over several decades, Bock was able to clearly demonstrate that the regions with the greatest increases in man-made air pollution over a given time (comprising of both black and brown carbon), showed the greatest increases in temperature over the same time. 

This analysis was done by comparing changes in actual historical regional temperature data with expected changes in regional pollution due to specific economic activity.  The analysis clearly shows that the trends in established historical temperature data sets conflict with currently accepted IPCC dogma & theory stating that particulate air pollution causes net cooling.  IPCC theory proposes that such cooling should result from the confirmed dimming of sunlight by pollution, and that such dimming is caused by the reflection of incoming light back to space by the pollution.  Instead Bock’s analysis shows that the observed dimming is likely due to an opposite effect – the absorption of visible light by soot pollution – resulting in that light/energy’s conversion and emission as infra red radiation (IR), producing dimming and a net atmospheric warming – not cooling.  There many other collections of temperature and weather data Bock has assembled which support the same thesis.  And despite an exhaustive search, Bock has been unable to find any recorded weather data, past or recent, which support conventional CO2 / GHG theory & models.  And now, it is increasingly accepted within the climate science community that soots are powerful climate forcers.

Further, atmospheric water vapor has long been understood to be the most powerful Green House Gas on Earth – thought to be responsible for at least 89% of the Green House effect in an unpolluted Earth atmosphere (Jacobson, 2002).  Therefore, anything that might affect water vapor’s GH effect would have a potentially very large impacts on climate.  Bock’s latest research and analysis shows that soot appears to be significantly amplifying atmospheric water vapor’s Green House effect.

Any vapor-induced Green House effect is primarily caused by the absorption and reflection of the Earth’s heat by the near-surface-area-atoms of water vapor molecules (droplets).  In 2007, Bock used Dr. Daniel Rosenfeld’s firmly established findings to show that both black and brown carbon's warming effects must be further amplifying water vapor's accepted GH effect by increasing the affected surface area of pollution-affected atmospheric water droplets.  Rosenfeld, is a very respected Israeli atmospheric scientist, who (in collaboration with the NOAA) authored Suppression of Rain and Snow by Urban and Industrial Air Pollution (Science, 2000). 

Rosenfeld’s research is now part of NASA's permanent website, where Bock had first seen it.  In that paper he showed that atmospheric soot reduces atmospheric water vapor’s normal potential to form and coalesce into larger raindrops, thereby keeping a given volume of atmospheric water more dispersed than normal.  Bock realized that this meant that a greater number of smaller raindrops (compared to a smaller number of larger drops comprising the same water volume) would have a higher percentage of surface area atoms vs those “buried” atoms found in the interior of rain drops, increasing that given quantity of water vapor’s potential to absorb and reflect radiation (thereby increasing the green house effect).

On July 24, 2008, Bock wrote Dr. Rosenfeld, citing Rosenfeld’s well established work to explain why soot may be dramatically affecting water vapor's greenhouse effect, and that this may significantly alter our understanding of the relative weights of various atmospheric climate forcers, and reducing that forcing attributed to CO2 and other gases - a potentially major discovery if further validated, and one that would affect the future of any world policy to address climate change.   

A few hours later Dr. Rosenfeld wrote Bock back with the following response concerning the proposed hypothesis: 

Dear Sam,

Your observations are very interesting and deserve serious attention, in my view.  I am not sure that I am the right person to integrate it all with respect to the impact on the global temperature. But I encourage you to send it to people who have been working on Earth radiation energy budget.

A person that is most relevant is Prof. V. Ramanathan:

Ram and I work on complementary pieces of the puzzle.

Best regards,


Professor Victor Ramanathan is a world renown IPCC report review editor, and one of the most respected and influential climate scientists today.  Ramanathan's many recent press releases concerning black carbon soot have received widespread coverage.

As suggested by Professor Rosenfeld, Bock will be contacting Prof. Ramanathan, with the final update of that climate research which is due to be completed within the next year.

The theoretical advancements and transformational product innovations developed by Paragon for its work in medicine, sport, climate, energy, and design were ultimately byproducts of Paragon research and improved understandings of the nature of energy and matter – and of the physical phenomena, life-forms, and new technology resulting from them. 

Paragon’s continuing theoretical physics and chemistry research is essential to our ability to analyze, evaluate, and develop new theory and applications in medicine, climate science, atomic physics, and conventional & emerging energy technologies.  It also allows Paragon to provide advanced education, business and government consulting, and to continue advancing the development of new energy technology and infrastructure.